Islamic banking is established on the principles of Islamic beliefs as they link with business transactions. The basics of Islamic banking are stemmed from the Quran, the main holy text of Islam. In Islamic banking, all transactions must comply with shariah guidelines, the lawful code of Islam which is in view of the preachings of the Quran and traditions of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). The standards governing business transactions in Islamic banking are called Fiqh al-muamalat.

Bankers or professional personnel who are employed by financial institutions that maintain Islamic banking are instructed to not go astray from the basic standards of the Quran while they are directing business. At the point when more data or direction is required, Islamic bankers go to highly qualified scholars or use their own reasoning based on their knowledge and experiences.

One of the essential contrasts between traditional banking frameworks and Islamic banking is that Islamic banking forbids usury, uncertainty, and speculation or gambling. Shariah firmly restricts any kind of speculation or gambling, which is known as maysir. Shariah additionally bans taking interest on loans that favor moneylenders at the expense of borrowers.

To generate profit without the ordinary act of charging interest, Islamic banks use equity participation funds. This implies if a bank provides a loan to a business, the business will have to pay back without interest. However, business rather gives the bank an offer in its profits earned. If the business fails to honour the bank or doesn’t earn any profit, at that point the bank likewise doesn’t profit.

What’s more, any ventures including things or substances that are restricted in the Quran which includes liquor, speculation, pork, and all haram activities are disallowed. Along these lines, Islamic banking can be viewed as socially responsible investment.

The acts of Islamic banking are generally followed back to businessmen in the Middle East who began participating in commercial exchanges with businessmen in Europe during the Medieval time. Originally, businessmen in the Middle East employed similar financial standards as the Europeans. Nonetheless, after some time, as financial institutions and banks established and European nations began building up nearby offices of their banks in the Middle East, a portion of these banks embraced the neighborhood customs of the district where they were recently settled, fundamentally no-interest financial frameworks that operated at a PnL i.e. profit and loss, sharing strategy. By embracing these practices, these European banks could likewise serve the requirements of nearby businessmen who were Muslim.

Starting during the 1960s, Islamic banking reemerged in the cutting edge world, and since 1975, numerous new Interest-free banks have developed. While most of these institutions were established in Muslim nations, Islamic banks likewise opened in Western Europe during the mid-1980s and that’s what we know as of today, Islamic banking evolved.

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Islamic banking typically referred to as Islamic finance or shariah-compliant finance which is a kind of finance or banking practice that sticks to shariah rules (Islamic law). Two key elements of Islamic banking are the sharing of profit and loss, and the disallowance of the kinds and payment of interest by banks, financial institutions, and speculators/investors.

The practices of Islamic banking and finance came into existence during the times of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) but the proper formal establishment of current Islamic finance and banking started in the late 20th century. Today, there are more than 500 banks and over 400 mutual funds around the globe that follow Islamic standards. Somewhere in the years between 2000 and 2016, the Islamic bank’s capital inflated from $200 billion to nearly $3.5 trillion last year. This development is to a great extent because of the rising economies of Muslim nations, particularly those that have profited by the rising cost of oil i.e. Gulf region.

Principles of Islamic Finance

Islamic finance firmly adheres to Sharia laws. Modern-day finance depends on various elements that are prohibited in Islam. Islamic finance doesn’t operate on four principles which are acceptable and a major part of conventional financial operations. These four principles are:

1. Paying or charging an interest (Riba)

Islam considers providing loans with interest payments as an exploitative practice that favors the moneylender at the cost of the borrower. As indicated by Sharia law, interest is usury (riba) has been straightforwardly declared haram by Islam.

Prohibition of interest in hadith, “the prophet (PBUH) cursed the receiver, the payer of the interest, the one who records it and the two witnesses of the transaction and said they are all alike (in guilt).” – Sahih Muslim

2. Putting resources into businesses engaged with Haram activities

A few activities, for example, creating and selling liquor or pork, are denied in Islam. These exercises are considered haram or prohibited. In this manner, putting resources into such dealings or activities is similarly illegal.

3. Speculation (Maysir)

Sharia carefully restricts any type of speculation or betting, which is called maysir. Accordingly, Islamic financial institutions can’t be associated with contracts where the goods are owned by uncertainty or ownership relies upon the uncertainty of future events.

4. Risk and uncertainty (Gharar)

The laws of Islamic finance prohibit participating in contracts with inordinate danger as well as uncertainty. The term gharar measures the authenticity of danger or vulnerability in speculations. Gharar is seen with subsidiary agreements and short-selling, which are prohibited in Islamic finance.

Along with the above-mentioned prohibitions, Islamic finance depends on two other significant elements:

Every transaction must be identified with a genuine fundamental financial transaction.

Parties going into the agreements in Islamic finance share profit/loss and dangers related to the transaction. Nobody can profit from the exchange more than the other party.

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Throughout the long term, Islamic finance has developed at a quick pace comprehensively and is currently a market worth more than $3.5 trillion. It largely operates in Muslim nations and offers a profitable career there. Now, it has started to expand to the Western world as well to attract investments from the Gulf region or Muslim states in general.

This blog set out to clarify the five benefits that Islamic finance offers to the community. Let’s begin.

It Helps By Encouraging Monetary Incorporation

According to the World Bank, monetary or financial inclusion is ‘’Financial consideration implies that individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that address their needs– transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance – delivered in a responsible and sustainable way.’ (Worldbank.org, 2017).

The traditional banking framework depends on interest payments at a rate pre-set on the amounts of the deposited cash. Payment and receipt of my interest i.e. Riba are precluded under the Shariah Law, so Muslims keep away from banking. Notwithstanding, through Islamic banking, financial inclusion can be advanced and get a bigger pool of investment funds in the domestic and worldwide economy.

Diminishing The Effect Of Hazardous Items And Practices

Shariah standards deny any exchanges that help companies or exercises which are prohibited in Islam. For instance, usury (Interest), gambling, speculation, regardless of whether these are legitimate or not in the location of the exchange.

Rule Of Financial Justice

One of the prerequisites of Islamic finance is financial justice. It enables Islamic finance products to work in a way that’s been instructed by Shariah. The Western or traditional financial framework sees making revenue through interest-based transactions and makes the beneficiary subject to any kind of hazard. Islamic finance works on the sharing of profit and loss and risks engaged in an equal way.

Financial justice is an essential prerequisite for the working of Islamic finance items. As opposed to Western or traditional financial systems, Islamic financing is based on the sharing of net profit and loss and the risks associated with a corresponding way between the creditor and the debtor. Consequently, if an agent is anticipating a case on the profits of a project, it is fundamental that he/she ought to likewise convey a relative portion of the loss of that specific project.

Stabilizing The Investments

In Islamic finance, speculations are drawn nearer with a more slow, shrewd decision-making process, when contrasted with traditional finance. Organizations whose financial practices and projects involve a great amount of risk in them are typically avoided by Islamic financing organizations. By performing detailed audits and research analysis, Islamic finance supports the decrease of risk and makes the space for more prominent and stabilized investments.

Fastening Economic Growth And Development

Islamic finance organizations surely have profit creation and development as their goals. For which, they decide to put resources into businesses dependent on their potential for development and achievement. Along these lines in the Islamic banking industry, each bank will put resources into promising business opportunities and endeavor to vanquish its rivals, so as to pull in more investments from its investors. This will inevitably bring about an exceptional yield on ventures both for the bank and the investors. This is impossible in an ordinary traditional bank, where investors reclaim returns on their deposits dependent on a pre-set loan interest rate.

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There are many modes of Islamic banking and finance. However, in this blog, we’ve discussed the most-used modes of Islamic banking and financing. These are:

MUDARABAH

It is a type of partnership where one party has the right to invest in the business i.e; Rabbul-maal and the other has the right to manage it i.e; Modarib. Any profits earned are shared between the two parties as per the profit ratio agreed during the agreement, while the financial loss is only suffered by the investor.

MURABAHA

In its literary context, it means profit. In fact, it is an agreement of offer wherein the seller reveals his cost and profit. It is an Islamic method of financing used by Islamic banks. In this financing mode, the customer requests the bank to buy certain products for him. The bank does that for a distinct profit over the cost, which is specified at the time of the agreement.

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MUSHARAKAH

Its literary context, it means sharing or partnership. Musharakah implies a relationship set up under a mutual agreement of the parties for the sharing of profit and loss in the joint business. It is an arrangement under which the Islamic bank gives funds, which are blended in with the assets of the business undertaking and others. Profit is shared amongst the partners on a pre-agreed basis. However, the loss is borne by the partners equivalent to their respective capital investment ratios.

IJARAH

In its literary context, it means “to provide something on rent”. Ijarah is an agreement of a known and suggested usufruct against a predetermined and legal return or thought for the administration or return for the advantage proposed to be taken, or for the exertion or work proposed to be consumed. In layman words, Ijarah or renting is the exchange of usufruct against some lawful consideration. If a fixed asset is provided then consideration is rent and if it’s hiring of a person then consideration is a wage.

ISTISNA

In Islamic financing, Istisna is generally a long-term contractual agreement for constructing, building, or manufacturing an asset, permitting advance money payment and delivery of commodities at a predetermined future time at an agreed price. It is generally used for giving an opportunity of financing the production or development of houses, buildings, plants, heavy machinery, and infrastructures like roads, bridges, railways, and more.

BAI SALAM

It is one of the most famous modes of Islamic financing. Salam implies an agreement where advance payment is made for products to be conveyed later on. The seller or dealer delivers some particular merchandise to the purchaser at a future date in return for a development cost completely paid at the time of the agreement. It is important that the nature of the product proposed to be bought is completely known and determined leaving no space for uncertainty which can further lead to conflict. The objects of this deal are various goods but can’t be gold, silver, or any currency. Even so, Bai Salam covers nearly everything, which can be measured in terms of quality, quantity and craftsmanship, and more.

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